| Dr. Bill
BSc (Toronto) , MSc (Toronto)
|Teaching & Research
Ecological effects of pollution and disturbance
he major thrusts of my research are: urban biodiversity; the ecological effects of forestry; carbon and biodiversity credits, and the development of curricula for environmental education.
Urban ecosystems are obviously dominated by humans and their activities. As such, urban habitats are highly anthropogenic (i.e., created by people) in their structure and function and mostly contain non-native species of plants and animals. For these and other reasons, urban habitats have low levels of ecological integrity. Some ecologists have proposed that the naturalization of urban ecosystems would improve their ability to provide ecological services in support of the human economy, while also supporting larger populations of native species. My research in urban ecology involves:
These studies are useful ways of examining fundamental questions in ecology (such as factors affecting ecosystem-level resilience and resistance). Moreover, because the research is carried out within ecosystems where most Canadians live and work, the results will be useful in enhancing broad-based environmental literacy and guiding public attitudes about important ecological and environmental issues.
Ecological Effects of Forestry.
This subject area has been the major focus of my research during the past three decades (although I am now moving more towards urban ecology). My most recent studies examined ecological implications of the conversion of natural forests into plantations near Fundy National Park in New Brunswick. The results of some of those studies were used to recommend a variety of changes to forest-management practices intended to avoid many of the ecological damages identified by our research. It would now be useful to investigate the effectiveness of the management recommendations in preventing biodiversity and carbon-storage problems associated with intensive forestry. Specific questions will address criteria proposed for maintaining cavity trees, large woody debris, buffers beside watercourses, and carbon storage in regenerating stands.
Carbon and Biodiversity Credits: This work involves the quantification and valuation of environmental services related to carbon storage in ecosystems as an offset to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and to the provision of habitat for indigenous biodiversity in wetlands and terrestrial areas.
|Examples of Students' Research
Freedman, B., L. Rodger, P. Ewins, and D.M. Green. 2001 . Species at risk in Canada. for: Politics of the Wild, ed. R. Boardman and K. Beazley. Oxford Press Canada. (in press) .
Beacham, W., F.V. Castronova, B. Freedman, and S. Sessine (editors). 2001. Beacham's Guide to International Endangered Species; Non-Mammals Listed Prior to 2000. Gale Group, Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA.
Stinson, G. and B. Freedman. 2000. Potential for carbon sequestration in Canadian forests and agroecosystems. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. (in press).
Freedman, B. 2000. Environmental Science. A Canadian Perspective. Second Edition Prentice Hall, Toronto, Ont. 668 pp.
Waldick, R., B. Freedman, and R. Wassersug 1999. The consequences for amphibians of the conversion of natural mixed-species forests to conifer plantations in southern New Brunswick, Canada Canadian Field-Naturalist 113: 408-418.
Freedman, B. (editor) 1998. Encyclopedia of Endangered Species, 2nd ed. Gale Research Inc., Detroit, MI.
Fleming, T.L. and B. Freedman. 1998. Conversion of natural, mixed-species forests to conifer plantations: Implications for dead organic matter and carbon storage. Ecoscience 5: 213-221
Freedman, B., V. Zelazny, D. Beaudette, T. Fleming, S. Flemming, G. Forbes, G. Johnson, and S. Woodley. 1996. Biodiversity implications of changes in the quantity of dead organic matter in managed forests. Environmental Reviews 4: 238-265.
Freedman, B. and Keith, T. 1996. Planting trees for carbon credits. A discussion of context, issues, feasibility, and environmental benefits, with particular attention to Canada. Environmental Reviews 4: 100-111
Freedman, B. 1995. Environmental Ecology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
Svoboda, J. and B. Freedman. (editors). 1994. Ecology of a Polar Oasis. Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island, Canada. Captus Press. Toronto.
Freedman, B. 2012. Biodiversity conservation. Encyclopedia of Quality of Life Research. (ed. Alex C. Michalos). Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. (in press)
Turner, K. and B. Freedman. 2004. Music and environmental studies. The Journal of Environmental Education, 36: 45-52.
Stinson, G. and B. Freedman. 2001. Potential for carbon sequestration in Canadian forests and agroecosystems. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (6): 1-23.